# A Friendly Introduction to Mathematical Logic by Christopher C. Leary

By Christopher C. Leary

On the intersection of arithmetic, laptop technology, and philosophy, mathematical common sense examines the ability and obstacles of formal mathematical pondering. during this growth of Leary's hassle-free 1st variation, readers with out prior research within the box are brought to the fundamentals of version concept, facts conception, and computability concept. The textual content is designed for use both in an higher department undergraduate school room, or for self research. Updating the first Edition's therapy of languages, constructions, and deductions, resulting in rigorous proofs of Gödel's First and moment Incompleteness Theorems, the multiplied second version contains a new advent to incompleteness via computability in addition to suggestions to chose routines.

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Extra resources for A Friendly Introduction to Mathematical Logic

Example text

6. Suppose that s1 and s2 are variable assignment functions into a structure A such that s1 (v) = s2 (v) for every variable v in the term t. Then s1 (t) = s2 (t). Proof. We use induction on the complexity of the term t. If t is either a variable or a constant symbol, the result is immediate. If t :≡ f t1 t2 . . tn , then as s1 (ti ) = s2 (ti ) for 1 ≤ i ≤ n by the inductive hypothesis, the definition of s1 (t) and the definition of s2 (t) are identical, and thus s1 (t) = s2 (t). 7. Suppose that s1 and s2 are variable assignment functions into a structure A such that s1 (v) = s2 (v) for every free variable v in the formula φ.

To prove a proposition, you start from some first principles, derive some results from those axioms, then, using those axioms and results, push on to prove other results. This is a technique that you have seen in geometry courses, college mathematics courses, and in the first chapter of this book. 41 42 Chapter 2. Deductions Our goal in this chapter will be to define, precisely, something called a deduction. You probably haven’t seen a deduction before, and you aren’t going to see very many of them after this chapter is over, but our idea will be that any mathematical proof should be able to be translated into a (probably very long) deduction.

If Γ is a set of L-formulas, we say that A satisfies Γ with assignment s, and write A |= Γ[s] if for each γ ∈ Γ, A |= γ[s]. Chaff: Notice that the symbol |= is not part of the language L. Rather, |= is a metalinguistic symbol that we use to talk about formulas in the language and structures for the language. Chaff: Also notice that we have at last tied together the syntax and the semantics of our language! 5. Let us work with the empty language, so L has no constant symbols, no function symbols, and no relation symbols.