By Ivar Lodemel, Heather Trickey
Within the Nineties, the constructed international has witnessed a pendulum swing clear of unconditional entitlement to social information in the direction of higher emphasis on responsibilities and stipulations tied to the receipt of economic tips. With the advent of "targeting" via administrative reforms, stipulations of entitlement were narrowed. The made from examine funded by way of the ecu Union, this identify compares "work-for-welfare" (workfare) rules objectively. It considers recognized schemes from the USA along extra neglected examples of workfare to be present in six eu international locations.
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Extra info for An Offer You Can't Refuse : Workfare in International Perspective
1). However, while the US is often seen as the originator of workfare policies, having a history of programmes going back to the early 1970s, compulsory work-for-benefit measures also have a long history within post-1945 Europe. In Germany a provision for workfare was included in the 1961 social assistance legislation, although the policy was largely dormant until the onset of mass unemployment in the 1970s. Denmark has taken a pioneering role in the more systematic application of compulsory activation policies.
The emphasis is on the responsibilities of the state in facilitating social cohesion, and mending “ruptures in social bonds” (Morel, 1998). As an expression of solidarity, efforts to develop ‘insertion’ policies entail an extension of public investment in welfare rather than a retrenchment of public responsibilities (Morel, 1998). According to Silver (1994), the social exclusion concept is also associated with Durkheimian sociology, in particular with an emphasis on moral integration. Levitas adds that the solidarity concept which relates to discourse around social exclusion (see Chapter Two) “is focused on work – with work itself perceived to have social as well as moral and economic functions” (Levitas, 1998).
For some the concept is 16 A new contract for social assistance dynamic focusing on the processes of detachment from society (Castels, 1990). Elsewhere the term is used with regard to relational issues, including different levels of resources, integration and power (Room, 1995). Both dynamic and relational approaches separate the social exclusion approach from a previously dominant concern with ‘poverty’, which until recently, in Anglo-Saxon countries in particular, was dominant in the discourse around receiving social assistance.