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Extra resources for Classic Reviews in Tourism (Aspects of Tourism, 8)
However, the benefits from tourism for developing countries may be constrained by import leakages (Sinclair, 1991a; Telfer & Wall, 1996), the need for foreign investment in hotel development and hence the repatriation of earnings (Kusluvan & Karamustafa, 2001) as well as environmental damage (Faulkner, 1998). , 1984; Sindiyo & Pertet, 1984; Andronikou, 1987, Smith & Jenner, 1989; Romeril, 38 Classic Reviews in Tourism 1989; Farrell & Runyan, 1991; Cater & Goodall, 1992; Eber, 1992). A key debate has concerned the extent to which tourism affects the environment adversely, thereby prejudicing the interests of future generations, or to which it serves as a force for environmental sustainability or enhancement.
Much of the literature (reviewed by Archer, 1976; Johnson and Ashworth, 1990; Sheldon, 1990; Crouch, 1994a; Sinclair, 1991a) has focused on the demand for tourism at the national level, measuring demand as the number of tourist arrivals or departures, expenditure or receipts from tourism or the number of overnight stays (Jafari, 2000). Early studies were useful in identifying and discussing the main economic determinants of tourism demand: income, relative prices, exchange rates, and transport costs.
Landscape, Photography and the Tourist’s Imagination. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Turner, C. and Manning, P. (1988) Placing authenticity – on being a tourist: A reply to Pearce and Manning. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology 24, 136–8. Turner, L. and Ash, J. (1975) The Golden Hordes. London: Constable. The Sociology of Tourism 21 Turner V. (1973) The center out there: Pilgrim’s goal. History of Religions 12, 191–230. Turner, V. (1974) The Ritual Process, Harmondsworth: Penguin.