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Additional info for Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation, Properties and Uses, Fifth Edition
Acetates of alcohols up to C6 are used principally for fruity notes, whereas the acetates of C8, C10, and C12 alcohols are employed for blossom fragrances and for flower notes in general. Lauryl acetate in particular is also used for conifer notes. In flavor compositions, aliphatic esters are preferred for artificial fruit aromas; as in nature, acetates and ethyl esters prevail. , in capers. 462, with a dry acid note, found in the odor of strawberries. The acid can be prepared from the corresponding saturated one by a-bromination followed by dehydrobromination.
Orthovanadates are used as catalysts, to give a 490 % yield of a geraniol-nerol mixture . Geraniol of high purity is finally obtained by fractional distillation. A considerable portion of commercially available geraniol is produced by a modified process: linalool obtained in a purity of ca. 65 % from a-pinene is converted into linalyl borates, which rearrange in the presence of vanadates as catalysts to give geranyl and neryl borates. The alcohols are obtained by hydrolysis of the esters .
Hydroxydihydrocitronellal is relatively unstable toward acid and alkali and is, therefore, sometimes converted into more alkali-resistant acetals, particularly its dimethyl acetal. Production. The most important synthetic routes to hydroxydihydrocitronellal are listed below. 1. Synthesis from Citronellal. One of the oldest routes to hydroxydihydrocitronellal is the hydration of the citronellal bisulfite adduct (obtained at low temperature) with sulfuric acid, followed by decomposition with sodium carbonate.