Common Sense, Reasoning, and Rationality by Renee Elio

By Renee Elio

Because the 11th quantity within the New instructions in Cognitive technological know-how sequence (formerly the Vancouver reports in Cognitive technology series), this paintings delivers significant scholarship and interdisciplinary charm. It addresses 3 parts of present and sundry curiosity: logic, reasoning, and rationality. whereas logic and rationality usually were seen as special gains in a unified cognitive map, this quantity deals novel, even paradoxical, perspectives of the connection. constituted of amazing essays from special philosophers, it considers what constitutes human rationality, habit, and intelligence, whereas protecting various components of philosophy, psychology, cognitive technology, and laptop technology. certainly, this paintings is on the vanguard of cognitive examine and can provide to be of unheard of effect throughout quite a few disciplines.

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Extra info for Common Sense, Reasoning, and Rationality

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The first perspective holds that much of what passes as commonsense reasoning has a strong inductive component. N. Rescher (1980) argues that induction is the mechanism by which reasoning proceeds in the face of imperfect or incomplete information, the very realm we have associated with commonsense reasoning. , Holland et al. 1986), the term induction is used to encompass any and all mechanisms that expand knowledge in the face of uncertainty. In addition to learning from past cases in order to predict new cases, this more expansive view of induction would include other sorts of inference processes, such as reasoning to the best explanation, scientific hypothesis induction, abduction, and the like.

So we can ask two questions: What are ordinary people making unreflective but sound judgments about? And what is the means by which they do so? Formalizing answers to these questions would take us rather close to considering all of human cognition. 2 Wishing to stop well short of that, I nonetheless want to consider a few matters that have typically been thought to characterize the content of commonsense knowledge and the nature of commonsense reasoning. The Domains of Commonsense Knowledge So what does "everyone" know?

By Newell's reckoning, elements of this simulation map to the basic assumptions that inform one account for errors in formal reasoning, namely, the mental models theory expounded by P. N. Johnson-Laird and his colleagues (Johnson-Laird 1983; Johnson-Laird and Byrne 1991). Briefly, the mental model theory holds that reasoning procedures operate on internal models of world situations. Newell argues that model representations are useful for much of reasoning because they are presumably well suited for the quick matching and other essential primitive operations executed by the cognitive architecture (such as those proposed by the SOAR theory).

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