By Andreas Mortensen
SynopsisThis Concise Encyclopedia attracts its fabric from the award-winning Encyclopedia of fabrics: technology and expertise, and comprises updates and revisions now not on hand within the unique set. This personalized number of articles presents a convenient reference for fabrics scientists and engineers with an curiosity in composite fabrics made up of polymers, metals, ceramics, carbon, biocomposites, nanocomposites, wooden, cement, fibers, and so on.
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Additional info for Concise Encyclopedia of Composite Materials, Second Edition
The materials breakdown for transport/cargo type aircraft is shown in Fig. 1; it can be seen that the trend is towards increased composites and titanium usage, primarily at the expense of aluminum. 5% of the 78% aluminum on the C-17 is Al–Li (2090 sheet and extrusions used in the cargo ﬂoor area). The materials selection is much different from that of ﬁghter aircraft (Fig. 2). As can be seen, the materials mix varies widely for ﬁghters depending on their missions. Current day ﬁghters tend to have composite skins, operating temperature permitting.
3. 5, component veriﬁcation, and airplane proof and ultimate tests, there is an extremely low probability of a static failure of any undamaged structure. Many airframe components are designed by elastic stiffness or speciﬁc stiffness (modulus/density) considerations to minimize weight. With the widespread introduction of dissimilar composite and metallic structural materials, the requirement to match stiffness properties can be an important design criterion. Similar to the static analysis gains, technology improvements in design and analysis to meet the fatigue life requirements have minimized these concerns, though problems still exist in certain areas.
4. Materials Used Aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys and composites comprise B99% of the structural materials used on Aircraft Materials Table 1 Critical requirements for transport aircraft component design. Wing Lower surface Skin (2XXX plate)a Stringer (2XXX extrusion) Upper surface Skin (7XXX plate) Stringer (7XXX extrusion) Ribs Shear tied (7XXX plate) Intermediate (7XXX sheet) Fuselage Monocoque Skin (2XXX sheet) Stringer (7XXX sheet) Frames (7XXX sheet) Floors Beams (extrusion, sheet) Seat tracks Bulkheads Stabilizer Lower surface skin (7XXX plate) stringer (7XXX extrusion) Upper surface skin (2XXX) plate stringer (2XXX extrusion) Fin Skins (7XXX plate) Stringer (7XXX extrusion) a Damage tolerance, fatigue Fatigue, damage tolerance, tension strength Compression strength (damage tolerance for heavy-gage skins) Compression strength Shear strength Stiffness, shear strength Fatigue, damage tolerance, corrosion resistance Fatigue, compression strength Stiffness, fatigue, compression strength, damage tolerance Static strength Corrosion resistance, static strength Fatigue, damage tolerance Compression strength Compression strength Tension strength, damage tolerance, fatigue Tension strength Compression strength, damage tolerance Compression strength 2XXX and 7XXX refer to 2000 and 7000 series aluminum-type alloys, respectively.