By Imre Lakatos, Alan Musgrave
Imre Lakatos, Alan Musgrave. Criticism and the expansion of Knowledge: lawsuits of the overseas Colloquium within the Philosophy of technological know-how. Cambridge college Press, 3d impact 1974 [Repr. 1995]. 288 Pages
ISBN 0-521-09623-5 paperback
Two books were quite influential in modern philosophy of technological know-how: Karl R. Popper's common sense of clinical Discovery, and Thomas S. Kuhn's constitution of medical Revolutions. either agree upon the significance of revolutions in technology, yet range concerning the position of feedback in science's innovative development. This quantity arose out of a symposium on Kuhn's paintings, with Popper within the chair, at a global colloquium held in London in 1965. The publication starts with Kuhn's assertion of his place by way of seven essays providing feedback and research, and at last via Kuhn's answer. The e-book will curiosity senior undergraduates and graduate scholars of the philosophy and heritage of technology, in addition to specialist philosophers, philosophically susceptible scientists, and a few psychologists and sociologists.
'An fascinating and worthy selection of papers.' - Nature
'This booklet is an engaging instance of philosophical debate approximately concerns which should still curiosity any historian of technological know-how all for clinical strategy and the philosophy of clinical change.' - Philosophy of Science
"An vital selection of major papers." - American Scientist
Previous Editions: First released 1970. Reprinted with corrections 1972, 1974 (3d Impression). Reprinted 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989,1990,1992, 1993, 1994, 1995.
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Additional resources for Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, Volume 4: Proceedings of the International Colloquium in the Philosophy of Science
Good. Let us agree that the Incompatibility thesis should stay. Then the Paradigm-Monopoly thesis and/or the No-Interregnum thesis must go. But these really hang together. The second says that a scientist's professional thinking is always paradigm-dominated, the first says that it is, at any one time, dominated by one paradigm. Against this I have maintained that since it takes time—a matter of years rather than of hours—to develop a potential new paradigm to the point where it may challenge an entrenched paradigm, heretical thinking must have been going on for a long time before paradigm-change can occur.
6, * This volume, p. 7. * This volume, p. 7. 8 7 This volume, p. 10. This volume, p. xo. 3O JOHN WATKINS better (other things being equal). So it is entirely in line with his philosophy of science that one scientific theory should be replaced by a more testable theory even though the previous theory has not yet failed a test. Second, by contrast with the relatively sharp idea of testability, the notion of ceasing 'adequately to support a puzzle-solving tradition' is essentially vague; for since Kuhn insists that there are always anomalies and unsolved puzzles,1 the difference between supporting, and failing to support, a puzzle-solving tradition is merely one of degree: there must be a critical level at which a tolerable turns into an intolerable amount of anomaly.
Op cit. pp. ) (4) From the conjunction of the above three theses it follows that a scientist's change-over from an old paradigm to a new one must be pretty swift and decisive. Kuhn emphatically endorses this implication. We have already noticed him referring to a paradigm-switch as a 'conversion'; and from other passages in his book it is clear that he holds that such conversions are quick. He says that a paradigm-switch is 'a relatively sudden and unstructured event like the gestalt switch',1 and that 'the transition between competing paradigms cannot be made a step at a time .