By Rafael Yuste
A number one neurobiologist explores the elemental functionality of dendritic spines in neural circuits through reading diverse facets in their biology, together with constitution, improvement, motility, and plasticity.
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Extra info for Dendritic Spines
2006. 22 Spines in humans are larger and more abundant than in mice. (A, B). Low-power photomicrographs of layer 3 pyramidal cells from human (A) and mouse (B) temporal cortex, injected in ﬁxed sections with Lucifer Yellow. Note the smaller size of mouse neurons. Sections are parallel to the cortical surface. (C, D) Photomicrograph of horizontally projecting dendrites of a human (C) and mouse (D) pyramidal cells. (E, F) High-power photomicrographs of the basal dendrite segments of human (E) and mouse (F) pyramidal cells, illustrating individual dendritic spines.
The neck is sometimes too lightly ´ lvarez, stained’’ (copy of autograph letter to Lorente, courtesy of Dr. Francisco A Creighton University, trans. by the author). 5). 16 Chapter 2 Discovery 17 In spite of this string of arguments and the combined weight of his evidence, Cajal’s conclusions took a long time to be accepted. Eventually, many of his contemporaries, such as Retzius, Scha¤er, Edinger, Azolay, Berkley, Monti, and Stefanowska, came to agree with him and conﬁrmed the appearance of spines in their preparations.
13D). , 2006). , 2007a). Thus, it is safe to assume that, while for most spines, the spine neck and head appear to be independently regulated, for a subset of spines, those with larger heads tend to have broader necks. The signiﬁcance of this special case is unclear, and will be addressed in later chapters. As will be discussed later as well (chapters 7, 8, and 9), the spine neck length also has a direct functional relevance, since it can regulate the degree of biochemical isolation of the spine from its parent dendrite and play a major role in the electrical ﬁltering (or ampliﬁcation) of synaptic currents injected at the head of the spine.