By Johanna Mattissen
Dependent-Head Synthesis in Nivkh has been presented a prize of the Offermann-Hergarten Donation on the college of Cologne in 2004. The endowments are granted for extraordinary cutting edge and comprehensibly documented research.This e-book deals an cutting edge method of 3 interlaced subject matters: a scientific research of the morphosyntatic association of Nivkh (Paleosiberian); a cross-linguistic research of advanced noun types (parallel to advanced (polysynthetic) verb forms); and a typology of polysynthesis. Nivkh (Gilyak) is linguistically amazing as a result of its hugely advanced be aware types, either verbs and nouns. they're shaped productively from advert hoc concatenation of lexical roots in established — head family with no additional morphological marking: basic item — predicate, characteristic - noun, noun — relational morpheme ("adposition"). After an in-depth exam of the wordhood of such complexes the morphological kind of Nivkh is explored opposed to the historical past of polysynthesis, noun incorporation, verb root serialization, noun complexes and head/dependent marking. For this objective, a brand new delimitation and category of polysynthesis is proposed at the foundation of an review of seventy five languages. along with contributing to a reconciliation of prior diametrically adverse techniques to polysynthesis, this examine demanding situations a few universal preconceived notions with admire to how languages "should be".
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Extra resources for Dependent-Head Synthesis in Nivkh: A Contribution to a Typology of Polysynthesis
The most commonly occurring verb form ends in -ḑ, traditionally called indicative. The suf fix is a nominalizer in origin, and the indicative form is characterized by both nominal and verbal properties. To the left of the suffix, any verbal suffix may appear. To the right, the ḑ-form can inflect for the full nominal paradigm. It is used as the predicate form of a complement or adjunct clause. 9) may be attached. 10). They are distinguished from mood here because they are identical in form to suffixes of the nominal paradigm.
Krejnovič 1937:51, Hattori 1962b:50-52, 71). Transitive single obstruent-initial verbs undergo initial consonant change, even the three transitive verbs which have an exceptional initial plosive2: 2 These verbs are old noun-verb compounds which are no longer transparent as such. g. o. ", which, although having been lexicalized from k'ə-vo- "hatchet-hold" (Jakobson 1971:91), adapted its initial sound to the fricative typical of transitive verbs. o. o. o. fishes sth. 2). o. goes"), are claimed to notalternate (see Krejnovič 1937:74-78, Beffa 1982a:58).
Overt participant phrases or free subject pronouns are not obligatory in Nivkh, the finite verb form being a minimal sentence as such. 4). The structure of a complex sentence is as follows (with word boundary): (61) topic embedded clause adverbials object primary object-predicate subject causee secondary Besides verbs, nouns (in the nominative) are used as predicates without a copula. They may bear scalar operators or focus suffixes. (62) (Jakobson 1971:80) Ikim oʁla I. " (64) (Jakobson 1971:96) Nosk urla-Gan-da N.