Design of VLSI Systems — A Practical Introduction by Linda E. M. Brackenbury

By Linda E. M. Brackenbury

VLSI platforms

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The easiest way of determining these features is graphically. This is done by first plotting T1'sids versus Vds curves for different values of Vgs above the threshold. Effectively, this is a graph of the circuit current I versus Vout for various values of V in. 20. It will be noted that the behaviour below pinchoff is taken to be linear. This assumption has a negligible effect upon the transfer and current characteristics to be obtained and greatly simplifies the preparation and plotting of the family of curves for the transistors.

This speed loss can be avoided by suitably increasing the width-to-length ratio of all transistors in the driving gate; this increases its current capability. Unfortunately, this increase in the dimensions of the driver gate causes its input capacitance to rise. This in turn increases the loading on its preceding gate, causing an unacceptable loss of speed here. 27 Buffer gate chain For these reasons, a large capacitive load cannot be directly driven from a standard gate output. 27. The aspect ratio of each gate in the chain is larger by a factor n than those of the preceding gate.

The surface is covered with aluminium and mask 7 defines where metal is to remain. Finally, the surface is covered with an overlay oxide and mask 8 defines the contact cuts in the overlay for the input and output pad positions. 4. Design of VLSI Systems 52 : I r-----~ . I ·I 010 • I 0 1 . I· 0 0 0 o; I! 4 Yield The successful fabrication of a chip to the user's specification depends upon the accurate control of the many operations within the process. It also depends Fabrication and Design Rules 53 upon factors such as imperfections in gases and materials used, and mis-alignment of masks causing mis-registration between the patterning layers.

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