By Bram Vanderborght
This publication reviews at the advancements of the bipedal jogging robotic Lucy. specified approximately it truly is that the biped isn't really actuated with the classical electric drives yet with pleated pneumatic synthetic muscle tissue. In an adverse setup of such muscle tissues either the torque and the compliance are controllable. From human strolling there's facts that joint compliance performs a huge function in power effective strolling and working. in addition pneumatic man made muscle tissue have a excessive strength to weight ratio and will be coupled without delay with no complicated gearing mechanism, that are invaluable in the direction of legged mechanisms. also, they've got the aptitude of soaking up influence shocks and shop and free up movement power. This e-book supplies an entire description of Lucy: the undefined, the electronics and the software program. A hybrid simulation application, combining the robotic dynamics and muscle/valve thermodynamics, has been written to guage keep watch over concepts prior to imposing them within the actual biped.
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Extra info for Dynamic Stabilisation of the Biped Lucy Powered by Actuators with Controllable Stiffness
2 Pleated Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PPAM) A pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM), also called a fluidic muscle, an air muscle or pneumatic muscle actuator, is essentially a volume, enclosed by a reinforced membrane, that expands radially and contracts axially when inflated with pressurized air. Hereby the muscle generates a uni-directional pulling force along the longitudinal axis. Different designs exist. Daerden et al. (105) classified the pneumatic muscles under Braided muscles (contains the McKibben muscle and Sleeved Bladder Muscle), Netted Muscles (Yarlott Muscle, RObotic Muscle Actuator, Kukolj Muscle) and Embedded Muscles (Morin Muscle, Baldwin Muscle, UnderPressure Artificial Muscle, Paynter Knitted Muscle, Paynter Hyperboloid Muscle, Kleinwachter torsion device).
A transition to a next phase is triggered by an event as footswitches, joint angle values or time delays. Between the discrete control actions the motion is passive due to the compliant actuators. So this robot behaves like an actuated passive walker. Because the compliance is adaptable, different natural frequencies can be selected. This means that the walking motion is not restricted to a fixed walking speed (412). A similar biped Achilles has been built by the Tsinghua University and is controlled to walk with a phase transforming based reinforcement learning method (270).
The Achilles tendon is a fibrous tissue that connects the heel to the muscles of the lower leg: the calf muscles. 7 times the bodyweight. The reaction force takes place about 116mm in front of the ankle joint. This is a free rotating joint and because the Achilles tendon is about 47mm after the ankle joint, the Achilles tendon has to hold 7 times the bodyweight. For a man of 70kg the force is about 5000N, for a woman of 50kg this is 3500N. This force is enough to stretch the tendon for about 6%.