By John J. McKetta
This 69th quantity offers info on circulating fluidized mattress reactors and appears at topics starting from easy options and hydrodynamics to constitution, homes and purposes of polyolefines produced by way of single-site catalyst expertise.
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design, Volume 69 (Supplement 1)
5 cm/s. For 40-µm particles, concentrations were found to be an order of magnitude larger at the wall than that found for 230-µm particles with lateral velocities ranging from 3 to 22 cm/s. What is interesting here is that if particle collisions with the wall help create the formation of clusters, how do cluster form in the core region as observed by Horio  and Rudnick and Werther . Furthermore, Karri and Knowlton  28 Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactors observed that particles in the annulus region with a downward flow had a larger particle size distribution than that in the core.
As with the axial profile, the design of the entrance and exit region can have a substantial effect on the solid radial concentration profile. Rhodes et al. 2-m-high riser. Their results showed that a side solids feed resulted in a nonuniform radial distribution of solids beyond 40 L/D’s, as depicted in Fig. 19. In addition, Rhodes et al. noted that the asymmetries in solids radial distribution were more noticeable in the interphase between the dense and dilute regions. Thus, depending on the design of the feed region, a nonuniform radial profile may exist throughout many industrial risers.
Hence, the high shear and resulting recirculation zones generated from the solids downflow near the wall may be responsible for the segregation effect observed by Karri and Knowlton . With upflow at the wall, the low shear may not generate strong enough eddies to effect the particle size distribution across the riser diameter. There are also design features that can reduce backmixing in risers. Baffles can induce wakes and turbulence, which limit the core–annulus profile. Of course, the added attrition caused by baffles needs to be factored into the design process.