Encyclopedia of Genetics Research by Michael T. Loback

By Michael T. Loback

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1989), suggested a structural and functional conservation across a wide range of species. , 1992). LIF is a multifunctional growth factor that has been extensively studied in many mammalian species, particularly in the mouse. , 1988). LIF is essential to keep the pluripotency of the mouse embryonic cells by inhibiting their differentiation. , 1991; Thompson and Majithia, 1998). , 1996). , 1998; Hibi and Hirano, 1998; Rose-John, 2002). , 2002). The bound complexes enter the nucleus, bind to DNA sequence of genes and activate transcriptions.

The urogenital ridge arises as paired structures within the intermediate mesoderm during the early development (Capel, 2000), and then the gonad emerges on the ventro-medial surface of the urogenital central region called mesonephros by thickening of the coelomic epithelium. Adjacent to the gonads are two simple ducts, the Müllerian and Wolffian ducts, the anlagen of female (oviduct, uterus and upper part of the vagina) and male (epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles) reproductive tracts, respectively.

BMP4 also support ES cell renewal by sharing the p38-ERK pathway, the alternative pathway of LIF-STAT. LIF lends its support to BMP4 for a full capacity of repressing ES cell differentiation. , 2003). LIF in the culture medium with serum can suppress differentiation of the mouse ES cells, but LIF fails to maintain the undifferentiated state on withdrawal of the serum, suggesting the involvement of other components in serum for ES cells. BMP4 in serum-free culture medium stimulates ES cells to differentiate, but remain them undifferentiated in the presence of LIF.

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