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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Nucleic Acids
Coli can be tightly controlled by the addition of glucose (repression) or arabinose (induction). FRANZ NARBERHAUS arabinosides →arabinonucleosides Argonaute Core component of * RISC, the effector complex of the * RNA interference pathway. In ﬂies, two Argonaute homologs are present. Ago2 is associated with * small interfering RNAs in RISC and responsible for * messenger RNA (mRNA) cleavage, whereas Ago1 is associated with 20 * micro-RNAs and responsible for inhibition of * translation of the targeted mRNA.
The chain of nucleotides forms intramolecular interactions that fold the molecule into a complex three-dimensional shape, which allows it to bind tightly against the surface of its target molecule. * Induced ﬁt and adaptive binding play important roles in aptamer–target interaction. As a high diversity of molecular shapes exists within the universe of all possible nucleotide sequences, aptamers may be obtained for a wide array of molecular targets, including most proteins and many small molecules.
Biochemical catalysts are * enzymes. In addition to proteins, RNA (→ribozyme) or even DNA (→DNAzyme) can also fulﬁll these requirements. In a ﬁrst step, enzyme E and substrate S form a complex ES that is converted into the transitionstate complex EX= . After formation of the enzyme–product complex EP, the product P dissociates. The enzyme is unchanged and ready to catalyze another event. E + S ↔ ES ↔ EX= ↔ EP ↔ E + P To lower the activation barrier of a biochemical process, enzymes use different mechanistic strategies such as * precise substrate orientation, preferential * transition state binding, * electrostatic catalysis and * general acid–base catalysis.