Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, 3e, by Robert Allen Meyers

By Robert Allen Meyers

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M. (1955). Proc. R. Soc. ] P1: GGY Final Pages Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology EN004D-157 June 8, 2001 Cryogenics 15:32 43 case of a flame-polished sapphire. Thermal conduction in the boundary scattering regime is strange, at first sight, in that the magnitude of κ is geometry and size dependent, becoming smaller if the physical dimensions of the sample are reduced. The addition of impurities to a crystal drastically reduces κ by providing an additional phonon scattering mechanism, thereby reducing λ.

The lattice has remarkably little effect on their motion, apart from opening up energy gaps, or forbidden energy ranges, at Brillouin zone boundaries. The electrons can be treated as an ideal Fermi gas. Measurements of the specific heats of metals yield results almost indistinguishable from the Debye specific heat curve of Fig. 5, and it can be concluded, therefore, that the electrons make a negligible contribution to the specific heat. This is at first sight astonishing since, according to the classical Equipartition of Energy theorem, there should on average be a thermal energy of 32 kB T per electron ( 12 kB T per degree of freedom, of which there are three for a gas), leading to an electronic molar specific heat contribution of 32 R.

Bose–Einstein statistics Form of quantum statistics that must be used to describe a gaseous assembly of noninteracting bosons at low temperatures. Cryostat Apparatus used to achieve and maintain cryogenic temperatures. Debye cut-off frequency Maximum possible frequency for a vibrational wave in a crystal: the Debye characteristic temperature is the Debye cut-off frequency multiplied by Planck’s constant and divided by Boltzmann’s constant. Dewar Vacuum-insulated vessel, of a type commonly used for cryostats or as containers for liquefied gases.

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