Energy Efficient Servers: Blueprints for Data Center by Corey Gough, Ian Steiner, Winston A. Saunders

By Corey Gough, Ian Steiner, Winston A. Saunders

Power effective Servers: Blueprints for info heart Optimization introduces engineers and IT pros to the ability administration applied sciences and strategies utilized in power effective servers. The e-book encompasses a deep exam of other gains utilized in processors, reminiscence, interconnects, I/O units, and different platform elements. It outlines the ability and function influence of those positive aspects and the position firmware and software program play in initialization and keep an eye on. utilizing examples from cloud, HPC, and company environments, the publication demonstrates how a number of strength administration applied sciences are applied throughout a variety of server usage. It teaches the reader tips on how to computer screen, study, and optimize their atmosphere to top swimsuit their wishes. It stocks optimization strategies utilized by facts middle directors and method optimization specialists on the world’s such a lot complicated info facilities.

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35 Chapter 2 ■ CPU Power Management I/O interfaces also have active and leakage power, but it is useful to separate them out for power management discussions. The switching rate in traditional I/O interfaces is directly proportional to the bandwidth of data flowing through that interconnect. In order to transmit data at very high frequencies, many modern I/O devices have moved to differential signaling. A pair of physical wires is used to communicate a single piece of information. In addition to using multiple wires to transmit a single bit of data, typically the protocols for these lanes are designed to toggle frequently and continuously in order to improve signal integrity.

There are conceptually two types of I/O devices: those that consume power in a manner that is proportional to the amount of bandwidth that they are transmitting (DDR), and those that consume an (almost) constant power when awake (PCIe/QPI). 35 Chapter 2 ■ CPU Power Management I/O interfaces also have active and leakage power, but it is useful to separate them out for power management discussions. The switching rate in traditional I/O interfaces is directly proportional to the bandwidth of data flowing through that interconnect.

The PCU is integrated into the CPU with the cores. These microcontrollers are generally proprietary, and the firmware that runs on them is kept secret. It is not possible for OEMs or end users to write their own firmware or change the existing firmware in these PCUs. However, various configuration options are available to the OEM and end user. These can be controlled through either the OS or BIOS. Tuning and configuring these options is discussed in Chapter 8. The PCU is responsible for the bulk of the power and thermal management capabilities that will be discussed through the rest of this chapter.

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