Seepage Hydraulics by György Kovks (Eds.)

By György Kovks (Eds.)

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Interpretation of representative elementary unit using the example of determination of porosity representative elementary volume 3* 36 1 Fundamentals for the investigation of seepage Porosity represents a good example of this statement as well. In a loose clastic sediment, the limit above which porosity fluctuates randomly, may be expected to be low, especially in sand and gravel. If the formation is layered, a slow change in the average porosity is probable after crossing an upper limit, indicating that above a given size, the investigated volume becomes inhomogeneous (it includes also a layer having properties different to the basic one), and the average parameter is more and more influenced by the second layer.

Sketch of equipment used for repeating Darcy's experiments and draining the lower one, ensuring a constant water level at both places. The sample is in a horizontal position in the figure, although the original experiments were executed with vertically standing samples, and the literature also describes equipment generally using vertical samples. This difference, however, does not cause any discrepancy, because the potentials at any point of 110th ends of the sample are calculated as the sum of potential- and pressure-energy ( z y p ) , or, when expressed as the height of an equivalent water column, that of the height of the point above an arbitrarily chosen reference level, and the height of the water level above the point (z h ) .

Among the minerals, quartz is the most common. The amount of feldspars and calcite is less significant. The presence of mica may also be characteristic in this fraction. 1 mm < D < 20 p ) is called mo or rock flour in soil physics. The mineral composition of this fraction does not differ from that of sand, except perhaps, in the larger amount of mica. The size of silt particles is 20 p < < D < 2 p. e. plasticity) is due mostly to clay minerals, which may already be present in this fraction in the h e r grainsizeportion.

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